In 1866 the North American branch of the Fenian Movement, made up mainly from veterans from both sides of the American Civil War, hatched a 2-pronged plan as part of their struggle for Irish Independence. One part of the plan was to cross the border and hold ‘Canada’ as ransom. The other part of the plan was to force Britain to withdraw a significant number of troops from Ireland to defend ‘Canada’. This would ensure a more successful uprising in Ireland. In the raids across the border 25 Fenians fighting for Irish independence were captured and held at Kingston Penitentiary.